"...there was no single "Gentile Christianity" in the mid-first century and scholars should discontinue its use so that they do not perpetuate this misunderstanding. The Christ-movement at this stage was a variant form of Judaism, existing within the synagogue community and Jewish sacred space, with local differentiations recognized." pg. 8 of "Gentile Christianity" and the Study of Christian Origins: A Response to Terence L. Donaldson Focusing on Gentile Self-Identification
"The first Christians constituted a small group within Judaism. Jesus had devoted his own ministry to Jews (Matt. 15:24), and his followers were Jews. At an early date the apostles began to admit Gentiles to the movement, but the Christians remained a basically Jewish group for a few decades. The new movement separated itself from its parent in the course of the first one hundred or so years of its existence. There is no one point that marks the 'divorce,' and so we must be vague about dates, but by the end of the first century many (probably most) Christian groups considered themselves not to be Jewish. By the end of the second century relatively few Christians would have identified themselves as Jews. Christianity became a predominantly Gentile religion." [Sanders in an essay entitled "Reflections on Anti-Judaism in the New Testament and in Christianity"]
"By the end of the third century, the primary motifs of the Adversos Judaeos tradition, or theological anti-Jewishness, were firmly implanted in church Christology. They laid the foundation for the Christian view of Jews and Judaism for centuries to come. Indeed, it was the church leadership in the patristic period that actually formulated such a theology of contempt," (Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein).
(1) Pride (Romans 11);
(2) Misinterpretation of the significance of the destruction of the Temple in 70 C.E.;
(3) Misinterpretation of Yeshua's statements in the Gospels (e.g. "You are from your father the devil!";
(4) Misinterpretation of Acts 15;
(5) Misinterpretation of Paul's seemingly anti-Jewish statements (e.g. 1 Thess. 2:14-16 "For you, brothers, became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea, for you suffered the same things from your own compatriots as they did from the Jews, who killed both the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove us out; they displease God and oppose everyone by hindering us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved. Thus they have constantly been filling up the measure of their sins; but God's wrath has overtaken them at last.");
(6) Misinterpretation of Paul's seemingly antinomian statements (e.g. Romans 10:4 "Christ is the end of the law so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes.");
(7) Misinterpretation of Paul's seemingly supersessionist statements (e.g Romans 9:6-7 "It is not as though the word of God had failed. For not all Israelites truly belong to Israel, and not all of Abraham's children are his true descendants.");
(8) Sociology of group identification. The Christians needed to demonize the Jews (the supposed "bad group") in order to prove that they (the Christians) belonged to the good group. Also, anti-Jewish rhetoric served the purpose of differentiating the Christian group from the Jewish group and thus strengthened Christian identity;
(9) Theological resentment. The Christians needed to prove to themselves that G-d preferred them above the natural members of Israel (i.e. Jews);
(10) Message Differentiation. To show the superiority of the Christian religion (over Judaism), the Christians needed anti-Jewish rhetoric to show that Judaism was inferior.
"A useful way to contrast ancient and modern conceptualizations of 'religion' is to consider, in antiquity, the embeddedness of divinity. Ancient gods were local in a dual sense. First, they attached to particular places...Second, gods also attached to particular peoples: 'religion' ran in the blood. Put differently: cult was a type of ethnic designation, something that identified one's people or kinship group, the genos....More commonly, deities were identified through reference to the peoples who worshipped them: the god of Israel, the gods of Rome, the god at Delos, and so on (cf. Acts 19:28: 'Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!')." pg. 3 of Christians in the Roman Empire in the First Three Centuries CE by Paula Fredriksen
"We know that those gentile Christians who refused to worship their ancestral gods became the target of pagan anxieties and, eventually, of pagan persecutions." pg. 7 Christians in the Roman Empire in the First Three Centuries CE by Paula Fredriksen
"To understand imperial Christianity's policies toward Jews and Judaism requires an appreciation of its foundational history in the second century, when the younger community fought doctrinal diversity within and persecution without. During this earlier period, the seeds of orthdoxy's anti-Judaism, which flourished especially from the late fourth century onward, developed and became established." pg. 2 Christian Anti-Judaism: Polemics and Policies by Paula Fredriksen and Oded Irshai